Natural Soapmaking for Beginners – Ingredients


This is the first post in this four-part series natural series on natural soapmaking that includes learning about ingredientsequipment & safety, basic soap recipes and formulating your own, and finally the process of making handmade soap using the Cold Process Method.

I make soap most every day and it’s become so much a part of my routine that I sometimes take for granted all of the little steps and tips I’ve learned through the years. I’m a self-taught soap-maker and though I now get consistent results I still remember my first attempt. It was a very small batch of peppermint and I and a friend spent over an hour stirring that pot by hand without getting it to mix (called trace). If I hadn’t have been persistent then it would have been easy to have given up after that. Through trial and error, a lot of time spent scouring the internet and books, and quite a few unsuccessful batches, I now have a successful process and a great range of products. Most of my soap is now destined for shops around the Isle of Man and for direct sale to customers though some of it is used at home in the bath, kitchen, and even laundry.

How to Make Natural Soap Series - Part 1: Ingredients #soap


I haven’t purchased a bar of soap, bottle of shower gel, or even liquid hand soap in years! I still find it an amazing experience to make soap and get a little excited every time I un-mould a new loaf. Through having a stall at the local Farmers Market I also chat to a lot of people about my products and it’s become clear to me that more people would like to find out about making their own soap too. I hope to begin offering local courses by next year but in the meantime I’d like to share some of what I’ve learned here.

How to Make Natural Soap Series - Part 1: Ingredients #soap

What is ‘Natural’ Soap? For me, making natural soap means avoiding the use of any ingredients that could be toxic or are manufactured in ways that use questionable substances or methods. This means that I personally don’t use artificial dyes, perfumes, or additives in my own soap. While some people might want to try to make soap for fun and aren’t too fussed about using all natural, my thoughts on the subject are that if you’re going to go to the effort of making handmade soap why not make a product that is going to be completely safe for you, your friends, your little ones, and your entire family?

But what exactly is Soap? Most people ask me how to make soap but maybe the first question that should be asked is ‘What is Soap’? At the heart of all soap recipes are two main ingredients: oil and lye, also known by its chemical name Sodium Hydroxide. Your soap making recipe will, through a simple but controlled process, chemically bond these two ingredients into a new compound – Soap! I’ll go through the process in a later post but let’s first look at your ingredients. The below is only meant as an introduction to your options and each section could be expanded upon with enough information to literally fill books. If you have any specific questions about anything please leave a message below.

How to Make Natural Soap Series - Part 1: Ingredients #soap

Lye / Sodium Hydroxide
Right, let’s talk lye. I’d like to start off by stating that you absolutely cannot make your own soap without lye. A lot of people shy away from making soap due to experience with the harsh lye soap their grandmothers made or because the thought of putting caustic soda into personal care products scares or puts them off. As I shared above, soap making is essentially the chemical reaction between oils, which are acids, and lye, which is a base. Together they will form a completely new material which will be gentle and nearly neutral in PH.

If you’d like to make soap but are still feeling a bit unsure about handling Sodium Hydroxide then I’d suggest that you look into purchasing ‘Melt-and-Pour’ soap. This material is pre-made soap and will come in blocks or cubes that you can melt on your stove or in the microwave and then pour into moulds.

Water is used to help activate the lye and disperse it through the oils. However, there will be no water left in your bars of soap by the time you use them. The water will evaporate out of your bars during the four to six week curing process which will leave your bars slightly smaller and harder than when you first took them out of their moulds.

Oils & Fats
Any oil or fat can be used to make soap and in your own recipes you can use anywhere from a single oil to a dozen. But when you’re just starting out I’d recommend sticking to just three to five. Soaps made from a single oil, such as Castile (olive oil) soap can be tricky to master and choosing more than a handful of oils can be expensive. Each oil that you use will combine with lye to create a soap characteristic of that oil and some are selected to provide hardness to the bar while others provide lather, conditioning, and cleansing. Here’s some common examples of oils used in soap making:

How to Make Natural Soap Series - Part 1: Ingredients #soap

Beeswax – Pure BEESWAX Pellets – Cosmetic Grade, Top Quality – Vegetarian but not Vegan, this wax will add hardness to your soap and a beautiful scent. Use only small amounts of beeswax in your recipes since it stops lathering at larger quantities.

Cocoa Butter – Certified Organic Cocoa Butter provides gorgeous moisture and skin protection and also helps to harden your soap. Use in smaller percentages as a ‘superfatting’ oil.

Coconut oil100% PURE Coconut Oil creates a hard bar with loads of fluffy lather and cleansing power.

Olive oil Olive oil Pomacesoap made with olive oil is sensitive, conditioning, and great for all skin types.

Palm oilPalm Oil a great oil for soap making but one that is very controversial. Palm plantations in south-east Asia have led to devastating deforestation and loss of habitat for animals such as Orangutans. If you choose to use Palm oil please consider using oil that’s been certified as sustainable and try to learn more about where exactly its being grown and by whom.

Soybean oilZoye Premium Vegetable Oil, 16 Ounce helps create a conditioning bar with a stable lather

Shea Butter – Unrefined Raw SHEA BUTTER An interesting oil since it has more difficulty turning into soap than other oils and will often stay in your soap as moisturising butter rather than soap. Use in smaller percentages as a ‘superfatting’ oil.

Sweet Almond oilSweet Almond Oil used for its light feeling and ability to moisturise and condition the skin. Use in smaller percentages as a ‘superfatting’ oil.

When formulating your recipes you’ll first choose oils that will make up the bulk of your recipe, such as Coconut and Olive oils, and those which will be used to ‘Superfat’. Superfatting means adding extra oils at the very end of your process that will be free-floating rather than combining with the lye and transforming into soap. Superfatting makes the difference between a bar of soap that’s cleansing and a bar of soap that’s cleansing and moisturising.

Preservatives are only used in ‘wet’ products since water creates a habitat where bacteria can grow. Soap does not require preservatives since the water that you use in the recipe will evaporate out. If you’re Superfatting your recipe (which you should definitely do) then what you will need is an antioxidant to help  free-floating oils stay stable and not go rancid. There are two main antioxidants that soap makers use in very small quantities at the very end of the soap making process:

Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE) – Nutribiotic Gse Liquid Concentrate, 2 Fluid Ounce extracted from the seeds and pulp of grapefruit this thick and clear liquid doesn’t add a scent to your soap and is very effective at keeping other oils from spoiling.

Rosemary Oleoresin Extract (ROE) – Aromatic Rosemary Oleoresin 6% 1 oz in Amber Glass extracted from Rosemary leaves and quite a thick and strong smelling herbal liquid.

How to Make Natural Soap Series - Part 1: Ingredients #soap

Soap Fragrance – optional

Some people will choose to let their soap scent speak for itself and  leave it to smell like simple, clean, handmade soap. Another idea is to use oils in your recipe like sesame or beeswax since they will impart their own unique and natural fragrances. I create an unscented soap that is fragranced with only the natural aroma of oatmeal and it’s proven quite popular with those suffering from extremely sensitive skin or reactions to fragrance of all kinds.

Personally I enjoy soap that’s subtly scented and leaves your skin smelling lovely. I’ve used essential oils in my soap from the the beginning but have also experimented with using ‘Fragrance oils’, which are commercially produced perfumes for the toiletry industry. Both have their pros and cons but if you like the idea of scent that has therapeutic powers then I’d suggest you’d stick with essential oils. Some have powerful medicinal properties and can help heal the skin or clear your sinuses and airways. The downside of using essential oils is their expense and propensity for fading with time if you leave the soap sitting in the open or in direct sunlight. This can be especially problematic for citrus essential oils such as lemon and orange.

Fragrance oils on the other hand are relatively inexpensive, have scents that last ages, and have a much more varied range to choose from. If you like baby powder scented soap or a shampoo that smells like coconut then you’re going to have to use fragrance oils. The con of using them is that they are trademarked and patent protected artificial perfumes that you’ll never truly know the contents of. In many cases fragrance oils are made of petrochemicals and allergens that cause people to sneeze or have skin reactions. Using fragrance oils in your soap also means that your product will not be ‘natural’. In the end it’s your choice to use one or the other but I urge you to do a bit of research before making a decision.

Scent Fixer – optional
Above I mentioned that the scent of essential oils can fade over time but there are ways to ‘fix’ the scent so that they’ll last longer. Sometimes another essential oil can help the others to stick and at other times it’s best to use another additive that works to absorb the essential oils into it. Fixers are a bit more advanced in soap making but I thought I’d add them in so that those experimenting with making nice smelling soap aren’t frustrated by their soap’s scent evaporating during the curing process. Here are some of the choices you’ll come across:

Arrowroot – use as little as a teaspoon in 800g (28oz) batches
Bob’s Red Mill Arrowroot Starch Flour, 16 oz

Benzoin – available as both a powder and as an essential oil
Nature’s Oil 2oz Benzoin Essential Oil 100% Natural

Cornstarch – use as little as a teaspoon in 800g (28oz) batches.
100% Pure Corn Starch (16 oz, 454 g)

Oatmeal – this is one that I’ve discovered on my own. Using fine blended oatmeal in your soap will add light exfoliation and will absorb and hang onto your essential oils.

Orris Root Powder – made from the dried and powdered root of the Iris (Iris germanica) and has a woodsy and violet scent of its own.
Orris Root powder 1oz

Essential oils – May Chang (Litsea cubea) and base note essential oils such as Cedarwood, Patchouli, and Balsams are all great at grounding the other essential oils in the blend.

May Chang Essential Oil

Cedarwood Oil

Patchouli Oil

Balsam Fir Needle Oil

How to Make Natural Soap Series - Part 1: Ingredients #soap

Soap Colours – optional

In Natural Soapmaking you have several options for colouring your soap which will include powders you can purchase from specialty suppliers and even flowers and plants that could be growing in your garden right now. Your other option is to choose oils that will impart a natural hue to your soap or to use ingredients that will caramelise and give a warm colour to the finished product.

Oil Selection – some of your oils, such as olive oil, will impart a more yellow or creamy colour to your soap, while white and/or light coloured oils will create white soap.

Clays – though limited in palette to just pink/red, green, and white, cosmetic clays can add beautiful natural colour to your soap. Clays also help to lightly exfoliate and detox the skin.

Minerals & Micas – Mineral and Mica powders are available in a wide range of colours that can help you hit most of the hues of the rainbow. Please note that while these cosmetic materials are considered natural they are both created in a laboratory environment. Minerals and Micas are found in nature but are often tainted with unsafe heavy metals and are unfit for use.

Sugars – milk, sugar, and honey will caramelise if you add them to your batch before trace.

Herbs, Flowers, & Roots – my personal favourite! Nature creates all types of wonderful colours useful in soap making. Use Calendula petals for golden orange, Alkanet root for purples, and Madder root for pink. I even have a soap-maker friend who uses fresh Spinach to give her soap a brilliant green hue.

How to Make Natural Soap Series - Part 1: Ingredients #soap

Botanicals – optional

The word botanicals simply means natural fruit, flower, leaf, and root additives that impart either colour (see above), visual interest, or exfoliation to your soap. There is some conjecture as to how much of the original properties found in these ingredients survive the soapmaking process but you can try adding them to your recipes and judge for yourself. This is again a more advanced area of soap making and completely optional.

Botanical oils – mainly used in the superfatting phase and may include Rose-hip oil, Neem oil, and Borage Seed oil. With the exception of Neem, it’s my opinion that the addition of these oils to soap might be a waste since their beneficial components can be destroyed by heat. Probably save them for making handmade lotion and cream.

Dried Fruit & Spices – lemon and orange slices, peppercorns, and cinnamon sticks are just some of the items you can add to your soap to create holiday or scent themed designs. Others, like Turmeric powder, can also provide vibrant natural colour.

Exfoliants – Rolled oats, ground almonds, and ground pumice stone can all be added at small amounts to create a more scrubby soap.
Herbs & Flowers – these can be used to both decorate and tint your soap. Use infusions of flowers and herbs in place of some or all of the water content and feel free to use dried flowers on both the tops and interiors of your soap. A word of caution though in using flower petals – most will discolour during the soap making and curing process. If you’d like lovely colour from your botanicals, make sure that that they’re ones that will stay true. You’ll see some lovely soap out there that use pretty rose petals and lavender buds on top and think you might want to do the same. If you decide to go down this route be prepared for them to turn brown in a very short period.

Roots – there are various roots with medicinal value that can be used in soap making but again, the effectiveness of the active ingredients can be questionable in your final product. Alkanet and Madder root are roots used purely for colour and are added either by infusing liquid oils with the dried root or by adding a powdered version of the root directly to the soap.

Where to purchase your Soapmaking Ingredients

Firstly I encourage you to pop into your local bulk foods wholesaler or cash-and-carry and see what they have on offer since you can often get a much better deal with them, especially with food grade oils, than with specialty soap and beauty suppliers. Secondly I’d like to emphasise is that it’s easy to spend a small fortune when starting out making your own soap. You don’t need much to get started so try to resist purchasing expensive oils and equipment until you’ve made a few batches and have decided that soap making is for you.

I’ll continue with the next post in this series a week from now and as the posts are published I’ll also place links to each section below.

Natural Soapmaking for Beginners Series

1. Ingredients
2. Equipment & Safety
3. Basic Recipes and Formulating Your Own
4. The Soap Making Process: Make, Mould, and Cure


Passionate about DIY projects, edible gardening and natural beauty products, Tanya makes everything from handmade soap to home and garden projects. She shares about how you can do it too on her blog, Lovely Greens.

Related Posts
Preserve the memory of a beach visit and the wet look of sea glass in this diy project for garden stepping stones.

39 Discussion to this post

  1. Tanya's soap is wonderful, it really smelled good and I used it and guess what, it lathers up nicely and cleans your hands, it was a luxury for me!

    I had trouble getting lye a while back because the meth labs bought it up as apparently it is used to make the illegal drug. They used to make lye from wood ashes but I have never tried that though I have buckets of them in the winter.

    • Thanks so much Sunnybrook – am pleased you liked the Gardener's Hand Soap :)

      Sodium Hydroxide can be purchased online if you have trouble locating it in your area. Creating your own from wood ashes isn't really recommended since you can't accurately gauge the strength of the liquid (which btw is Potassium Hydroxide rather than Sodium Hydroxide). Going down this route could lead to some pretty harsh soap!

    • Anonymous says:

      great advice, i might try it. well described and thorough, and in easy does it kind of way

  2. Dani says:

    Thanks Tanya.

    The recipe I have takes over an hour of stirring to get to trace. Although I love making my own soap, knowing that my batch is going to take 1.5 – 2 hours is sometimes daunting…

    I use a combination of coconut, olive (pomace) and canola oil.

    • I'll go over mixing the lye and oils together in the fourth post in this series but I'll let you in on a teaser…mixing with a spoon is not the the quickest or efficient way to reach trace :)

    • Dani says:

      Tanya – I've tried with two different hand whisks, an electric mixer and a stick blender. Nada! All that happens is the electric motors start smelling as thouogh they are gping to burn out…

  3. Moj sapun... says:

    Such a grate post, I really enjoy reading it! I am really glad that you will continue publishing additional ones related to soapmaking. Best Regards, Gordana

  4. serendipity says:

    A very informative post. I look forward to the next ones!

  5. SUAN CHEN says:

    Finally! Soap Making guidelines from a reliable source. Thanks so much.

  6. Tanya Walton says:

    Hi Tanya, at long last I have found some time to sit down at the computer and catch up with the blogs I usually love to read on a regular basis. You hedgerow jelly looked lovely and is definitely a recipe to note for next year. I was really sorry to hear about Miracel. xx

    Exciting to see you extracting your first batch of honey, how did you enjoy it? Hopefully I will be doing this next year!! Did you get your hive that was being aggressive sorted out??

    It looks like you have had bountiful harvests from your allotment his year!!

    Your latest show photos were great, I think it's great how these things are still so well attended on your little island, I wish my village would learn a thing or two from you, community spirit is seriously lacking in my neck of the woods these days!!

    • So good to hear from you Tanya! Things are humming along on the Isle of Man and hopefully you'll have some events to go to yourself around Christmas time? Have you thought about organising a community seed swap or the like? Hope all is well on your allotment :)

  7. Anonymous says:

    Thanks so much for posting this!
    I've been looking to eliminate harsh chemicals from my personal care products for a while and I was just wondering if this same process would produce something that would work as a shampoo as well as soap. I'm certainly going to try it anyways, but if I can clean my hair with the result- bonus!

  8. Anonymous says:

    Thanks for the interesting and informative article. I'm considering soap-making as a future project. I look forward to reading the rest of the series.

  9. Anonymous says:

    Can anyone help…I have tried beats for a red/pink color it looked lovely but my soap did not come out colored is thre a time or temperature problem?

  10. Christina L says:

    Tonya, thanks so much for all this advice and help. Do you have any advice on how to get tea scents to come out of soaps?

  11. Anonymous says:

    Thank you for posting the Canadian site. I have been looking for one.

  12. Evie Dawson says:

    I love creating skin care products at home… My anti fungal soap making is incomplete without all natural ingredients like essential oils ,they have beneficial qualities.

  13. You have some great soap making info on here for us beginners, thank you for sharing! You say here that one must be prepared for dried botanicals to go black and I have experienced this already….the ones you show here though are like so many I do see though – they do have petals on them. I see them on Ebay and really would love to be able to do the same. Is there a secret to successful using of them ?

    • The secret to using botanicals like lavender, rose petals, chamomile, and other flowers is to sprinkle them on top rather than incorporate them into your soap. On top, they will brown a little where they touch the soap but the untouched parts will generally remain colourful.

  14. Pauline says:

    Dear Tanya,
    Thank you very much for such clear information. I like it that for each ingredient you have explained Why we use it and the alternatives.
    My son has a very very sensitive skin and the other day I was checking in the shops to see if I could find a soap for his skin. The lady in the shop told me that she too has a sensitive skin and she uses soap that does not have bubbles because it is for sensitive skin.
    Now, I have made soap before (5 years ago), my eldest son picked making soap (the cold method) as his science project. I remember we read somewhere that it was the oils that gave the bubbles. So as the lady was talking I decided at the back on my mind that I will just make soap for him.
    I needed a place to do reviews before proceeding with the actual making of the soap. Your blog has just provided that, thank you.

    • Hi Pauline :) The problem with the 'bubbles' probably has more to do with using SLS (sodium laurel/laureth sulfate) in soaps rather than bubbles produced by natural soap. If you steer clear of products with SLS/SLES then I think your son should be fine. These artificial ingredients are added to increase lather and bubbles but many people are sensitive to them.

      Good luck with making your own soap and please drop by again if you have any questions :)

  15. D says:

    I'd just like to add that Voyageur Soap and Candle is another online soap supply company in Canada. They have an excellent selection 😀

  16. Hey Tanya,

    I was searching for some homepage soap recipes today when I came across ( download stardoll cheats).

    Awesome stuff!

    Actually, I just launched a guide that teaches people how to make luxury soaps at home. I usually charge $X, but I’d be more than happy to send it over to you on the house. All I’d ask is that you’d consider mentioning it on your blog or writing a review.

    Let me know how that sounds.


    Blue Aristocrat

  17. Amanda Simon says:

    Also use soap which has natural ingredients like tea tree oil.For more info visit

  18. What percentage of benzoin oil is recommended for anchoring the scent of essential oils? Are we mixing it with the EOs before adding to the soap batter? Please chime in anyone and thanks in advance.

  19. If soaping with oils that have a short shelf life, will ROE/GE help? What percentage is used? if the oil has a shelf life of say 3 months, how much more shelf life will it increase?

  20. Anonymous says:

    The round soaps with the swirls that are in the photo are lovely. May I ask where you got the mold? Thanks in advance.

  21. Maria Nekh says:

    I have been searching for tips about making natural soap, I must say that this is a very very clear explanation of all the ingredients and their "functions" in the soap.
    Thank you for sharing! :)

  22. Honey Grove says:

    I love your passion for making your own products and wiliness to teach it to others. You are a woman after my own heart!

  23. thanks for the interesting and informative article. I'm considering soap-making as a future project. I look forward to reading the rest of the series

  24. ming lou says:

    I use cooking oil and KOH to cook detergent. It is easier than looking around for safe detergent for garden veg irrigation. If you use hard water for washing, you can add 15 – 45 % mono potassium phosphate as hard water softener (also a PH buffer). To make it a shampoo just add a bit more olive oil to tip over a bit the PH. I never put anything unnecessary into my detergent, not even natural fragrance or colour, because whatever I add in will finally get into my garden soil, get into my veg then get into my stomach. I like washing cloths by stamping in a basin, it is quicker and cleaner and not hurting the fabric. Also I recommend using sea water for cooking seasoning instead of salt, you need all elements in the ocean (what is the proportion? The element proportion in your body are nearly the same as they are in the environment as scientist found) but not only sodium. Make your own drinking water by breaking lava rock and sediment rock and soak them in collected rain water. When your urine stinks, your blood PH is no good, when your body fluid PH is good, your urine will not smelly. Keeping your mouth fresh and odourless by using tooth pick to scrape your teeth, never use tooth paste (it wear out your teeth surface layer and unbalance the microbes that make your mouth stink). Natural and healthy teeth are ivory coloured but not white. Never use mouth rinsing water which will cause your mouth smelly worse only, bacteria would not make your mouth stink, but unbalanced bacteria make your mouth stink. I use 2 natural gas fermenter as septic tank which is a closed system never leak out into environment, when one is filling the other is maturing. Gas for cooking, the matured sediment for fertiliser in garden. The important thing is never let any unhealthy and unnatural stuff gets into your septic system in the first place. As a general principle, get rid of all your household chemical products. Air deodorant, disinfectant, bleach, hair dye, insecticide, etc. they are all unnecessary waste of natural resources and harmful pollutants to a home and the environment. The so called modern life style makes us sick, makes environment sick, the rat race of making money and getting rich is fundamentally contradictory to sustainability. Use as little as possible natural resources but contribute as much as possible effective information that is my understanding of a good Earth villager. That is the only way to reach future. Green life is good life. It is a real civilised life. Want to hear other’s opinions.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>